James Greaves 1814-1885

James GREAVES is the father of my 3rd great grandfather Charles James GREAVES, who was baptised in St Matthew’s Church, Brixton on 22 June 18241.

When BaptisedChild’s NameParents’ NamesAbodeQuality, Trade or Profession
22 June 1824Charles James son ofJames and Elizabeth GREAVESStockwellGardener

Marriage

James GREAVES married Elizabeth Ann CHESHIRE at St Mark’s Church, Kennington, Surrey2.

St Mark’s Church, Kennington. James GREAVES of this parish, bachelor, and Elizabeth Ann CHESHIRE of this parish, spinster, were married in this church by banns this 28th day of June 1831. 
Witnesses: William CHESHIRE & Sarah SHINER

1841 Census

In 1841 James and Elizabeth GREAVES were living at James Street, Clapham, Surrey3. James was working as a male servant. The couple had 4 children: Charles, James, William and Elizabeth.

NamesAgeProfession, Trade or EmploymentBorn in the County of Surrey?
James GREAVES29M[ale] S[ervant]Yes
Elizabeth GREAVES29Yes
Charles GREAVES7Yes
James GREAVES4Yes
William GREAVES2Yes
Elizabeth GREAVES3 monthsYes

1851 Census

In 1851 James and Elizabeth were living at 1 Stockwell Cottages, Lambeth, Surrey4. James GREAVES was working as a gardener, and the couple had 2 more children: Henry and Clara. Elizabeth GREAVES (CHESHIRE) died in 1854, she had one more son between this census and her death: Rollo.

Name and SurnameRelation to HeadConditionAgeRank, Profession or OccupationWhere Born
James GREAVESHeadMarried40GardenerBucks
Elizabeth GREAVESWifeMarried40Dress makerStockwell, Surrey
Charles GREAVESSonUnmarried16Plasterer lab[ourer]Stockwell, Surrey
James GREAVESSon14Errand boyStockwell, Surrey
Albert GREAVESSon12Stockwell, Surrey
Elizabeth GREAVESDaur.10Stockwell, Surrey
Henry GREAVESSon8Stockwell, Surrey
Clara GREAVESDaur.4Stockwell, Surrey

Marriage

After Elizabeth CHESHIRE’s death in 1854, James GREAVES married Sarah MAYHEW in St Mary’s Church, Lambeth, Surrey on 05 July 18555. James GREAVES was listed as a widower on the marriage record.

When MarriedName and SurnameAgeConditionRank or ProfessionResidenceFather’s Name and SurnameRank or Profession of Father
05 July 1855James GREAVESFull ageWidowerGardenerLambethStephen GREAVES (deceased)Farmer
Sarah MAYHEWFull ageSpinsterLambethJohn MAYHEW (deceased)Watch maker
Witnesses: Ja[me]s GAWBER & Eliz[abe]th POWELL

1861 Census

This is where it gets complicated. James can be found on two separate censuses: the first is with his wife Sarah and two children from James’ first marriage (Henry and Rollo) at 2 West Cottages, Lambeth6.

Name and SurnameRelation to HeadConditionAgeRank, Profession or OccupationWhere Born
James GREAVESHeadMarried45GardenerNorthampton
Sarah GREAVESWife51Middlesex
Henry GREAVESSon18GardenerSurrey
Rollo GREAVESSon10ScholarSurrey

The second census finds him living under the name James STONE, the “husband” of Gift STONE, and 4 children: Henry, Mary, Angelina and Walter7. Gift STONE (nee BLACKMORE) was formerly the wife of Ambrose STONE who had died about September 18548. Gift had continued to have children after Ambrose’s death, which are probably the children of James who had stepped in to take Ambrose’s place in the family – even assuming his surname! But there is no marriage to be found between James and Gift, as James was already married to Sarah MAYHEW at the time.

James’ age, occupation and place of birth are very similar on both censuses, but not identical.

Name and SurnameRelation to HeadConditionAgeRank, Profession or OccupationWhere Born
James STONEHeadMarried44GardenerBuckinghamshire
Gift STONEWife32NeedlewomanSussex
Henry STONESonUnmarried11Errand boySussex
Mary STONEDaur9ScholarSussex
Angelina STONEDaur3ScholarLambeth, Surrey
Walter STONESon1Lambeth, Surrey

1871 Census

In 1871 James was still living under the name James STONE. James and Gift were living at Alfred Place, Lambeth, Surrey9. James and Gift had another son, James, who was 9 years old with whom I have DNA matches to back up this theory.

Name and SurnameRelation to HeadConditionAgeRank, Profession or OccupationWhere Born
James STONEHeadMarried57GardenerBuckinghamshire
Gift STONEWifeMarried43SeamstressFalmer, Sussex
Henry STONESonUnmarried21Printer compositorFalmer, Sussex
Mary STONEDaur.Unmarried19SeamstressFalmer, Sussex
Angelina STONEDaur.14SeamstressLambeth, Surrey
Matilda STONEDaur.11ScholarLambeth, Surrey
James STONESon9ScholarLambeth, Surrey

1881 Census

In 1881 James and Gift were now using the surname GREAVES. It was thought that it might have been because his wife Sarah MAYHEW had died, but I have found a census record showing the possibility that Sarah MAYHEW (GREAVES) was living as an inmate in the Lambeth Workhouse on Renfrew Road10 and then died in the final quarter of 188111.

James and Gift GREAVES were living at 35 Thorne Street, Lambeth, Surrey12. James GREAVES was still working as a gardener.

Name and SurnameRelation to HeadConditionAgeRank, Profession or OccupationWhere Born
James GREAVESHeadMarried67Labouring gardenerBuckingham
Gift GREAVESWife53Sussex
James GREAVESSonSingle17CompositorLambeth, Surrey

Death

James GREAVES died at the Workhouse Infirmary on Brook Street, Lambeth, Surrey on 17 August 188513.

When and Where DiedName and SurnameSexAgeOccupationCause of DeathInformantWhen Registered
17 August 1885. Workhouse Infirmary, Brook StreetJames GREAVESMale71 yearsGardener of 18 Southville, Wandsworth RoadMorbus CordisRob[er]t H LLOYD. Chief resident medical officer, Workhouse Infirmary20 August 1885

Baptism

Although I haven’t been able to located his baptism record, whilst all his siblings have had their baptisms registered in Finmere, Oxfordshire or Kilsby, Northamptonshire, I believe James is the son of Stephen GREAVES and Lucy PICKERING. The reasons I have come to this conclusion are:
1. His marriage certificate to Sarah MAYHEW in 1855 gives his father’s name as Stephen GREAVES (deceased), which matches the father on the baptism record.
2. He mentions his place of birth as Northampton on the 1861 census, although he does mention Surrey and Buckinghamshire on other censuses. 
3. I have DNA matches to descendants of his sister Charlotte GREAVES, baptised at St Faith’s Church, Kilsby, Northamptonshire in 1816 – daughter of Stephen and Lucy GREAVES, and also to his sister Susanna GREAVES, baptised in Finmere, Oxfordshire in 1809 – daughter of Stephen and Lucy.

Inside St Faith’s Church, Kilsby, Northamptonshire. 03 January 2019. Clare Hopkins.

Family Members:

Wife:Elizabeth Ann CHESHIRE 1811-1854
Son (Direct Ancestor):Charles James GREAVES 1834-1913
Father:Stephen GREAVES 1770-1850
Mother:Lucy PICKERING 1781-?

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Sources:

  1. Baptisms (PR) England. Brixton, Surrey. 23 June 1834. GREAVES, Charles James. Collection: London, England, Births and Baptisms, 1813-1906. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 08 October 2021.
  2. Banns (PR) England. Kennington, Surrey. 28 June 1831. GREAVES, James and CHESHIRE, Elizabeth Ann. Collection: London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 21 January 2021.
  3. Census Records. England. Clapham, Surrey. 06 June 1841. GREAVES, James. PN 1053. Book 3. FN 23. p. 8. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 12 May 2021.
  4. Census Records. England. Lambeth, Surrey. 30 March 1851. GREAVES, James (head). ED 17. SN 28. PN 1574. p. 8. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 08 October 2021.
  5. Marriages (CR) England. Lambeth, Surrey. 05 July 1855. GREAVES, James and MAYHEW, Sarah. Collection: London, England, Marriages and Banns, 1754-1921. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 18 October 2020.
  6. Census Records. England. Lambeth, Surrey. 07 April 1861. GREAVES, James (head). ED 4. SN 87. PN 363. p. 16. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 09 October 2021.
  7. Census Records. England. Lambeth, Surrey. 07 April 1861. STONE, James (head). PN 358. FN 17. p. 6. SN 30. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 16 February 2022.
  8. Deaths (CR) England. RD Lambeth, [Surrey]. 3rd Q., 1854. STONE, Ambrose. Vol. 1d. p. 563. Age at death 30: . http://www.gro.gov.uk : accessed 16 February 2022.
  9. Census Records. England. Lambeth, Surrey. 02 April 1871. STONE, James (head). ED 25. PN 672. FN 103. p. 32. SN 191. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 16 February 2022.
  10. Census Records. England. Kennington, Surrey. 03 April 1881. GREAVES, Sarah (inmate). ED Lambeth Workhouse. PN 599. FN 135. p. 12. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 16 February 2022.
  11. Death Index (CR) England & Wales. RD Lambeth, [Surrey]. 4th Q., 1881. GREAVES, Sarah. Vol. 1d. p. 259. Age at death: 76. http://www.freebmd.org.uk : accessed 16 February 2022.
  12. Census Records. England. Lambeth, Surrey. 03 April 1881. GREAVES, James (head). ED 30. PN 605. p. 14. http://www.ancestry.co.uk : accessed 09 October 2021.
  13. Deaths (CR) England. Lambeth, Surrey. 17 August 1885. GREAVES, James. Entry no. 115.

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